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Full text of "How to know period styles in furniture; a brief history of furniture from the days of ancient Egypt to the present time"

LIBRARY 

TAT TBACHCNB OOl_L 
ANTA BARBARA. CALIFORNIA 



LIBRARY 



2 



I'A 



HOW TO KNOW 
PERIOD STYLES 
IN FURNITURE 



A Brief History of Furniture 
from the Days of Ancient 
Egypt to the Present Time, 
Illustrated with over 300 
Typical Examples and a Brief 
Description of Each Period 



By W. L. KIMERLY 




STATE NOffiAL SCH00L 
MANUAL ARTS Af'D H6KE 

SANTA BARBARA, CALIFORNIA 
1912 

GRAND RAPIDS FURNITURE RECORD CO. 
Grand Rapids, Michigan 



Copyright, 1912, 
By W. L. Kimerly, Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Copyright, 1912, 

By The Grand Rapids Furniture Record Co. 
Grand Rapids, Mich. 










THE OBJECT OF THIS BOOK 

Most books published on furniture are 
too voluminous for any one except the 
professional designer. Many of them are 
in a foreign language and they are invari- 
ably high in price. 

It is the object of this book to arrange 
in a clear, practical way, a brief history 
of furniture, illustrating same with typical 
examples of each period and a brief 
description of each, so as to produce a 

CO 

handy reference for all who may wish to 
understand "Period Styles in Furniture." 









W. L. KIMERLY. 
March 1, 1912. 



PREFACE 

A knowledge of period styles in furniture is as necessary 
to those who would properly furnish a home as a knowledge 
of grammar is to those who would speak correctly. All 
period styles have a history and an exceedingly interesting 
one. The historical styles in furniture are those that have 
stood the test of time; they were not created in a day, but 
were gradually developed to fit the needs of civilization and 
society; a change in government or religion has always been 
reflected in the character of the furniture. No new style has 
ever been created without a knowledge of some older one and 
probably never will be. The student of furniture may delve 
into the mysteries of design as deeply as he may desire and 
always find something interesting and instructive, but the 
busy man or woman, the clerk in the furniture store or the 
salesman on the road must have the information necessary 
for them to understand the general arrangement and char- 
acteristics of period styles placed before them in as brief and 
compact a manner as possible. It is believed that the follow- 
ing pages will accomplish this purpose in a better manner 
than any other book now published. 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Historical 9 

Chronological Table 12 

- Egyptian 13 

Babylonian-Assyrian-Indian 15 

Grecian 17 

Roman 21 

Byzantine 23 

Islam or Moorish 25 

Gothic 27 

Renaissance in Italy 33 

Renaissance in France 39 

- Louis Quartorze (XIV) 45 

- Louis Quinze (XV) .-> 51 

Louis Seize (XVI) . 55 

Empire 59 

Early English Renaissance (Tudor) 65 

Elizabethan 69 

Jacobean 73 

William and Mary 79 

Queen Anne 83 

The Georgian Period. 89 

Chippendale 91 

Heppelwhite 99 

The Adam Style 103 

Sheraton 107 

Victorian Era 113 

Renaissance Styles in Other European Countries 114 

German 115 

Flemish 117 

Holland 119 

Spain 121 

L' Art Nouveau 123 

Furniture in the United States 125 

Colonial Furniture 127 

Colonial Style of Today 137 

Mission 143 



HISTORICAL 

The history of furniture in those countries where it can 
be traced, closely follows the character, customs and environ- 
ments of the people and corresponds in growth to the develop- 
ment of their civilization and refinement, the skill of their 
workmen and the use of improved tools, etc., etc. 

In order to give a brief outline of its history from the 
oldest civilization to the present time, we will begin with 
Egypt. 

There are very few original pieces of furniture of the 
early ages in existence and most of the information of this 
period is gathered from illustrations. However, owing to 
climatic and other conditions, a number of genuine specimens 
of Egyptian furniture have come down to us and we have a 
more complete record of the work of this country than many 
of the later nations. 

The Assyrians, Babylonians and Jews, who were next in 
order, did not develop anything distinct in style, and have 
left very few specimens that can be attributed to them. 

Next come the Greeks, whose work in classic art shows 
such an exquisite sense of beauty and form that their influence 
on succeeding styles has been very great. Roman art was 
greatly influenced by them but they added to it and developed 
certain characteristics of their own. One distinct feature of 
their work which differed from the Greeks, was their use of 
the round arch. The work of the Greeks and Romans form 
what is known as the Classic in architecture and furniture 
designing. 

After the Roman came a style called Byzantine. Then 
the Moslem power arose and with it came the Islam style 
of ornament which was confined chiefly to floral and geomet- 
rical motives. The Moslem religion prohibited them from 
using human or animal forms in their designs. They also 
developed a peculiar style of pointed arch. Meanwhile 
classic art had begun to decay and a style arose called Gothic. 

9 



io HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 

It spread all over Europe and was supreme for several 
centuries. Its distinguishing features were geometrical forms 
and the high pointed arch. It was distinctly an ecclesiastical 
style and was far more suited to architecture than furniture. 
During this period classic art was at a very low ebb, but a new 
movement began to be felt in every branch of industry and to 
this great revival the name of Renaissance had been given. 
It started in Italy the latter part of the fifteenth century and 
spread all over Europe continuing about one hundred years. 
At this time great progress had been made in architecture 
and furniture designing. Under the reign of different 
monarchs various types were gradually developed until they 
were recognized as period styles. These styles were usually 
given the name of the sovereign under whose reign they were 
developed, although in some cases they were named after the 
designer, as in the case of Chippendale, Sheraton and others. 

In the early days, furniture followed closely the archi- 
tecture of the period. Chests, cabinets, etc., were often given 
facades that were simply buildings in miniature, seats were 
stiff and cumbersome, chair posts often resembled small church 
spires, but with the' advent of period styles, furniture design- 
ing became a separate profession, and we find a great variety 
of furniture constructed for both comfort and utility and 
entirely free from the architectural plan of the building . 
although there was always a connecting link in detail or orna- 
ment which kept the two in harmony. It must be remembered 
there was no distinct line drawn between the different styles 
but rather a gradual change or development from one to the 
other. Much of the furniture made during these transitory 
periods is extremely difficult to classify, it oft-times being 
impossible for even experts to determine positively to which 
period a particular piece should belong. 

So the object of this book is to show fully developed 
examples only of each style as they are recognized today. 

As the greatest number of styles were developed in 
France and England, a chronological table has been arranged 




HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 11 

showing the order of their development in these and adjoining 
countries. 

All illustrations shown in this book are reproduced from 
pieces actually made or designed during the time the particular 
period they represent was in vogue. 




Italian Renaissance. 




CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE 

Showing the Order of Period Styles from the Beginning of the Renaissance 
to the 19th Century. 



ENGLAND 




FRANCE 


SOVEREIGN 


STYLE 


REMARKS 


STYLE 


SOVEREIGN 


Home of Tudor 


Henry VIII 
1509-1547 


Tudor 


ENGLISH RENAISSANCE PERIODS 


About the duration 
of the Renaissance 
Period in other 
countries. 


FRENCH RENAISSANCE PERIODS 


Francis 
Premier 


Francis I 
1515-1547 


Elizabeth 
1558-1603 


Elizabethan 


Henri- Deux 


Henry II 
1547-1559 


Italy. 
1443-1564 


j 


James 1 
1603-1625 


Jacobean 


Francis 11 
1559-1560 


Charles I 
1625-1649 


Germany, 
1525-1620 


Charles DC 
1560-1574 






Flemish & Dutch, 
1520-1634 


1649-1660 


Henry III 
1547-1589 


1 

I 

55 


Charles 11 
1660-1685* 


Spain and Portugal, 
1500-1620 


James II 
1685-1688 


Henri 
Quatre 


Henry IV 
1589-1610 


Other European 
Countries 
1500-1630 


}! 


WXuB&Mary 

1688-1702 


William & 
Mary 


Louis Trize 


Louis XIII 
1610 1643 




Anne 
1702-1714 


Queen 
Anne 




v Barocco Styles. 
Beginning of the Rococo. 




Louis 

Qualorze 


Louis XIV 
1643-1715 




George I 
1714-1727 


Chippendale, 
Heppelwhite, 
Adam 
Sheraton 


GEORGIAN PERIOD 


Chippendale's book. 
The Gentleman's and 
Cabinetmaker's Director," 
published 1754 and a 
later edition 1 762. 


o 

3 Louis Quinze 

O ; 

at | 


Louis XV 
1715-1747 


George II 
1727-1760 


Hepprlwhite's book. "The 
Cabinetmaker and Uphol- 
Herer's Guide," 1789. 


CLASSICAL 


Louis Seize 


Louis XVI 
1747-1793 


R.M.Adams. 1750-90 


George III 
1760-1820 


Sheraton's book, "The 
Cabinetmaker and Uphol- 
sterer's Drawing Book." 
was published 1791. A 
later edition IB 1812. 


Empire 


Napoleon 
1793-1814 



12 



EGYPTIAN 

Stone was the principal building material of the Egyptians 
but wood and metal were used for the lighter articles. All 
three materials were employed in making furniture. 

The principal woods were the sycamore, cedar and some 
, varieties of palm. 

Carving and inlaying were used, but painting was the 
predominating method of decoration. The motifs used in 
decorations were the lily, lotus flower, date palm and reed. 

The following illustrations show the character of their 
furniture and ornamentation. 





Egyptian Sphinx in the Vatican Museum. 








C 



J 




Egyptian Columns Showing Character of Ornament. 







Egyptian Mouldings. 
13 



14 HOW TO KNOW^PEKIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 




Ancient Egyptian Throne. 




Egyptian Stool. 





Egyptian Chair. 



Egyptian Upholstered Chair in 
British Museum. 




Egyptian Stool Covered in Leather 
in British Museum. 




. . ;,' ,: 



BABYLONIAN-ASSYRIAN-INDIAN 

The furniture and ornamental work of these countries 
was very similar to that of Egypt, but each country had 
certain characteristics of its own. 

A few illustrations of their work are interesting and form 
a necessary link in our history. 




Bronze Tripod, in the 
Louvre, Paris. 





WtshsUnd. 




Assyrian Throne from a 
Monument. 




Assyrian Bronze Throne, in 
British Museum. 






GRECIAN 

Grecian art reached the height of its glory from three 
to four centuries B. C. Their work constitutes what is known 
today as Classic Art. 

The characteristics of their art were very different from 
those of Egypt and other oriental countries. They established 
the three orders of columns, Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian, 
and showed great taste and refinement in ornament and pro- 
portion. 

Their most famous work was on their temples and build- 
ings, but they designed a great variety of furniture which 
was made of bronze, wood, and stone. 

Characteristic detail: The Anthemion, Antefix, frets, 
egg and dart and dentil mouldings. 




Different Types of the Ante-fix. 





Anthemion. 



Egg and Dart Moulding. 



^n 



I II 

Jl -ML A ill 1 ' vT^ . 




Greek Fret*. 
17 



i8 HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 





Greek Throne from a Relief, in 
British Museum. 



Greek Chair Upholstered with 
Draped Skin. 







Greek Lady's Chair, from an Antique 
Vase Painting. 






Greek Chmir. 



Greek Marble Chair. 



HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 19 




Greek Couch and 
Footstool. 



Greek 
Settee. 





.Doric 





TirrunTrrrrnj 




Grecian Order of Columns. 



ROMAN 

The Roman National Art was developed largely under 
the guidance of Greek teachers and, consequently, has many 
similar features, but their work in the Classic Art was much 
more highly ornamented than the Greek style. 

They established the round arch and brought architec- 
ture to a high state of development. They adopted the Greek 
orders, Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian, and added one of their 
own, 



Many specimens of Roman Classic Art were found when 
the buried cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum were discovered 

in 1748. 



Bronze Couch Frame found at Pompeii, 
now in Naples Museum. 




Ancient Roman Bronze 
Stand, in the British 
Museum. 





Bronze Seat found at Pompeii, now in 
. Naples Museum. 



Bronze Stand found at Herculaneum, 
in Naples Museum. 



21 



22 HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 



Roman Arm Chair, with 
Sphinx Ornaments. 



Marble Table found at Pompeii 




Fragments of 

Roman Frieze, 

Showing Character 

of Carving. 




BYZANTINE 

During most of the early periods, religion was one of the 
chief motives for a change in style, and when Christianity 
became predominant during the Byzantine Empire, ancient 
classic art was put aside. The old heathen temple and its 
decorations did not satisfy these early Christians, so they 
developed a style which is known as Byzantine. One of its 
chief characteristics was the ornamentation. The pecu- 
liar sharp pointed acanthus leaf being used extensively, 
mosiacs and rich decorative effects were also prominent feat- 
ures. Very little furniture was produced. Probably the most 
interesting piece left -is the chair of "St. Peter" in Rome. 
It was inlaid with ivory and gold, and is one of the oldest 
pieces of wooden furniture in existence. 



Byzantine Carving from a Church in 
Constantinople. 



Byzantine Capital from 
St. Mark. Venice. 



Chair of "St. Peter, Rome. 




Byzantine Baptistry, from a Palace 
in Venice. 



Baptismal Font, from a Church 
in Venice. 



ISLAM OR MOORISH 

When the Moslem power spread abroad, a new style 
followed, known as Islam or Moorish. The Moslem religion 
prohibited the use of human or animal forms in paintings or 
decorations, so their art was confined to geometric and vege- 
table ornament. They were very skillful in artistic interlacing 
and interweaving of arabesque and geometrical ornament 
and the use of rich and vivid coloring. Their use of the horse- 
shoe and ogee arch was another characteristic feature of the 
period. Their work was confined chiefly to mosques and 
buildings, and not much furniture was produced. 




Horseshoe Arch. 



Minaret of a Mosque. 
25 



Ogee Arch. 






GOTHIC 

Gothic first put in an appearance about the year 1200, 
and quickly spread all over Europe. It was chiefly an archi- 
tectural style, but its influence is clearly seen in the furniture, 
which at this period was closely allied to architecture. 

The. high pointed arch and geometrical forms were 
characteristic of the style. The trefoil and quatrefoil were 
the chief motifs used in carving. 

Cupboards, chests, tables, beds, and cabinets were the 
principal pieces of furniture made during this period. The 
chairs, with the exception of folding stools, were massive and 
uncomfortable. 

Gothic was predominant for several centuries. 




English Coronation Chair in Gothic Style, 
Nurnberg. Westminster Abbey. 

27 



28 HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 




Gothic Credence Cupboard, 15th Century. 



Gothic Stall in the Cluny 
Museum. 




Gothic Window. 




Gothic Tat 



HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 29 




Gothic Credence Cupboard, 15th Century. 





Gothic Windows. 



RENAISSANCE 
STYLES 







RENAISSANCE IN ITALY 

The Renaissance style originated in Italy about 1443 to 1564 
and reached a degree of excellence that has never been equalled 
elsewhere. It was a revolt from the stiff, formal arrangement 
of the Gothic and the return of classic principles. 

Great artists worked during the Renaissance period in 
Italy; such men as Titan, Raphael, Palladio and Michael 
Angelo being identified with the movement. Workman from 
Italy went to France, England and other countries, and the style 
spread all over Europe with such changes as the conditions 
in different countries naturally brought about. 

Italian Renaissance was a rich, elegant style, principally 
for the palace. Very few pieces of middle class furniture 
have come down to us. 

Carving was the principal ornamentation used on furni- 
ture and was applied with lavish expense, as was the use of 
stamped leather and rich velvets. 

Characteristic features are the acanthus leaf, arabesque 
scroll, ribbons and flowers, swags of fruit, grotesque human 
and animal forms. 




Italian Renaissance Carved Seat, 15th Century. 

33 



34 HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 




Italian Renaissance Carved Chest, 16th Century. 




Italian Renaissance Table, 15th Century. 




Italian Renaissance Table, 16th Century. 



HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 35 





Italian Renaissance Folding Chair, 
in South Kensington Museum. 



Italian Renaissance Hall 
Chair, in South Kens- 
ington Museum. 




ru T*.,!.-.,., Renaissance Chair. 



Italian Upholstered Chair, in South 
Kensington Museum. 



36 HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 




Italian Renaissance Seat, from the De Medici Family. 





Italian Renaissance Bench. 



Italian Renaissance Stall, 15th Century. 



HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 37 




Italian Renaissance Mantels, 15th Century. 




38 HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 




Acanthus Scroll. 




Dolphins. 




Arabesque. 



Dolphin. 
Different Types of Italian Renaissance Ornament 









RENAISSANCE IN FRANCE 



The French Renaissance period began during the reign 
of Frances I. and ran about one hundred years, ending 
with the formal work of Louis XIV. It followed along lines 
of the Italian Renaissance but was coarser and heavier in 
ornamental detail. Much of the work was done by Italian 
designers, but still it became imbued with the French spirit 
and developed strong characteristics of its own. By this time 
the Renaissance movement had developed furniture to where 
special study was given this branch of designing. The early 
French Renaissance shows considerable intermingling with 
the Gothic which was more firmly rooted than in Italy. 

Characteristic features are the arabesque, shields, scrolls, 
half figures, animal forms, cartouch, shell curved pediments, 
and twisted columns. 




French Renaissance Mantel. 



40 HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 




French Renaissance Cabinet, 16th Century. 




French Renaissance Chair, 
17th Century. 





French Renaissance Chair, 
16th Century. 



French Renaissance Chest, 16th Century. 



HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 41 








French Renaissance Chair, 
late 16th Century. 



French Renaissance Bed, 16th Century. 
Cluny Museum, Paris. 







French Renaissance Henry III. Cabinet, 
in South Kensington Museum. 




French Renaissance Table, 
16th Century. 



42 HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 




Fine Old French Renaissance Mantel. 




LOUIS 
PERIOD STYLES 

IN 

FRANCE 



LOUIS QUATORZE (XIV.) 

The Louis XIV. marked the end of the Renaissance 
period in France and the beginning of a series of distinct 
period furniture styles. 

The Renaissance style had gradually undergone changes 
until under the patronage of Louis XIV. it developed into what 
was probably the most magnificent of the French period styles. 
It was an age of courtly splendor and grandeur; of rich, 
massive furniture, well suited to the palace and salon and 
where it is used today for large, richly furnished rooms. 

One of the notable features was the work of Andre 
Charles Boule. He was thef King's cabinet-maker and was one 
of the greatest of the ebinestes (workers in ebony), inlaying 
this wood with tortoise shell, brass and other metals until the 
whole resembled a brilliant mosaic. He further decorated his 
work with chiseled mounts of ormolu and bronze, carved and 
gilt ornaments. 

Marble and granite were used for table and console tops, 
and fine tapestries for upholstering; all combining to create 
a style in perfect harmony with the pomp and glittering 
splendor of the age. 

Characteristic features of the style: Well-balanced 
barocco ornament, cupids, shell, mask, satire, ramshead and 
the acanthus leaf. 




Louis XIV. Chair Upholstered 
in Tapestry. 

45 



46 HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 




Louis XI\ r . Arm Chairs Upholstered in Tapestries. 




From an old design of a Louis XIV. Table. 



HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 47 



Mirror Fram* and Clock Cases 
Louis XIV. Style. 




Louis XIV. Table, from an Early 18th Century Design. 



48 HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 




Louis XIV. Boule Cabinet 



HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 49 




Louis XIV. Marriage Coffer and Cabinet, by 
Andre Charles Boule. 




50 HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 




Design of Louis XIV. Mantel and 
Wall Decorations. 



7 



. 



LOUIS QUINZE (XV.) 



Louis XV. was distinctly a rococo style straight lines 
were avoided whenever possible. The barocco type of orna- 
ment of the Louis XIV. style was a heavier and well- 
balanced type, while the rococo ran in all directions, regard- 
less of structural features. It was a succession of broken 
curves, shell ornament, wreaths, flowers, etc., etc., designed 
for an age of frivolousness, licentiousness and excessive luxury. 
Ornamentation was carried to the extreme in fantastic com- 
binations a style principally suited to the boudoir or parlor. 
An important feature of the period was the use of lacquer, 
known as Vernis Martin, the name of the inventor. Gilt carv- 
ings, marquetrie, painting and ormolu mounts covered every- 
thing plain surfaces were avoided whenever possible. From 
' the point of fine workmanship, furniture of this period has 

never been surpassed. 

^ Characteristic features are: The cabriole leg, extreme 
rococo, curled endive leaf, shell and twisted scroll ornament. 







Louis XV. Bureau. 



52 HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 




Louis XV. Table. 




Desk owned by the French King, Louis XV. 
Elaborately Decorated with Marquetrie and Chased Ormolu Mounts. 



HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 53 




Louis XV. Settee. 




Louis XV. Chair. 



Louis XV. Commode, decorated in Vernis 
Martin and with Ormolu Mounts. 



54 HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 




Interior Showing Elaborate Rococo Ornamentation of the 
Louis XV. Period. 



(X 



LOUIS SEIZE (XVI.) 



The Louis XVI. style was a return to classical principles. 
While Louis XV. was all curves, Louis XVI. was character- 
ized by straight lines and simplicity in construction and is 
easily distinguished from the former for that reason. 

To the refined taste of Queen Marie Antoinette is given 
a great deal of credit for the existence of this style. It was 
also greatly influenced by the discoveries of antique classic 
ornament at Herculaneum and Pompeii. The straight leg was 
nearly always used turned, tapered, fluted or twisted. Gild- 
ing, carving, marquetrie, Vernis Martin, ormolu mounts were 
all used in decorations, but in a refined artistic manner. 

Characteristic features are : The fluted column, oak and 
laurel leaf, wreaths, the Greek band and other classical emblems. 




Louis XVI. Table. 



55 



56 HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 





Louis XVI. Tapestry-back Settees, from 18th Century Examples. 



. 



HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 57 




Louis XVI. Bed. 




Louis XVI. Sofa. 



58 HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 




Winged Arm Chair, Louis XVI. 





Louis XVI. Arm Chairs. 



Chairs. 




EMPIRE 

This style was developed during the reign of Napoleon, 
and the letter N was found everywhere in the decoration of 
the period. The style was a revival of Greek, Roman and 
Egyptian motifs. Marquetrie and carving were discarded and 
plain surfaces were decorated with brass and ormolu mounts 
of antique emblems. 

Mahogany was the principal wood employed and con- 
siderable veneering was used. 

Characteristic features: The wreath, torch, Sphinx, 
Greek band, honeysuckle, Roman eagle, columns and scroll 
supports. 




Napoleon's Bed at the Grand 
Trianon, Versailles. 



59 



tf 



HOW TO ^VOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 




Empire Table. 



HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 61 




Empire Table. 



Empire Chai 




Large Empire Table. 




Empire Chair. 





Empire Wreathes. 



f 



62 HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 




ir* Btr.l of Madame Du Barry, Paris. 



ENGLISH 
STYLES 










EARLY ENGLISH RENAISSANCE (Tudor) 

The early Renaissance in England was a mixture of 
classic and Gothic detail crudely drawn and developed into 
what is known as the Tudor style under the first four 
Sovereigns of the House of Tudor, but more especially 
Henry VIII. He gave encouragement to the revival and 
brought Italian artists and artisans to England, who left work 
that had its influence on the English designer. As in the 
Gothic days, furniture still closely followed architecture and 
was still heavy, cumbersome and uncomfortable. The fire- 
place was the most elaborate piece of work in the house during 
all of the early English Renaissance periods. 

Characteristics are: A mingling of Italian and Gothic 
detail, heavy turnings, the Tudor rose and other types of round 
carved panels. 




Tudor Oak Game Table, about 1585. 




66 HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 



Tudor Oak Stool, 
about 1540. 



Remains of one of the oldest pieces of Tudor 

English Upholstered Furniture known, 

about 1530. 







Tudor Stool, showing Round Carved 
Panels of the Period, about 1580. 



Tudor Oak Chair in Winchester Cathedral. 

Used on the occasion of the marriage 

of Mary Tudor with Philip. 



HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 67 




Tudor Table, Henry XIII., known as the 
Melon Bulb Table. 




Tudor Chair, about 1535. 





Carved Panel Showing 
Tudor Rose. 



ELIZABETHAN 

Queen Elizabeth was the last sovereign of the House of 
Tudor and the architecture and furniture made during her 
reign is known as Elizabethan. The Renaissance movement 
was gradually making a change in the furniture of England. 

The workmen brought over from Italy, where the new 
style had made its greatest progress, were imitated by the 
native artisans, but not with the skill and delicacy of ornament 
that characterized the Italian work. However, they developed 
a sturdy, substantial style that was particularly suited to oak. 
The furniture was of a heavy, massive construction with showy 
facades, fluted and carved columns, on which a crude Ionic 
cap was often used. Carving was coarse and flat, a character- 
istic feature being the interwoven strap work; some inlaying 
was also done. 

The furniture of the period consisted mainly of chests, 
cabinets, cupboards, massive canopy beds and chairs of a stiff 
and cumbersome nature with wood or cane seats. Upholster- 
ing had not yet come into vogue to any great extent, loose 
cushions being used instead. 

Rooms were usually furnished with paneled wains- 
coting, beamed or moulded ceilings. 

Characteristics of the style : Heavy bulbous legs, turned 
or square, interwoven strap work, heavy mouldings and carved 
panels of a coarse Renaissance style. 




Late Elizabethan Draw Table. 
69 



70 HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 




Elizabethan Bed of Oliver Cromwell. 



HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 71 



Elizabethan Cupboard, about 1570. 




Elizabethan Wood Seat Chair. 
Inlaid and Carved, 16th Century. 



Elizabethan Mantel. 



72 HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FIRNITURE. 




Elizabethan Mantel, lth Century. 



JACOBEAN 

There is no distinct line of demarcation between the late 
Elizabethan and early Jacobean. The same style of ornamenta- 
tion was used for some time, but there was a gradual change 
from the heavy and somewhat over-ornamented Elizabethan 
to severer forms and less ornament. Some of the later work 
became quite plain rectangular, square, diamond and L-shaped 
moulded panels were much used. Turned legs and supports 
became popular. Most of the carving was cut into the solid 
wood instead of the raised or applied kind. Inlaying was also 
used in a limited way. 

Chairs with cane backs and seats were popular and of a 
much lighter design than the Elizabethan. Upholstering was 
used on some of the plainer styles of chairs and settees. 

The Jacobean was contemporaneous with the Flemish 
style and was considerably influenced by it. 

Elizabethan, Jacobean and Flemish styles can be used 
together in perfect harmony in furnishing a room. Oak was 
the wood of the period. By referring to the chronological 
table, it will be seen that the Jacobean period covered the reign 
of several monarchs and certain types of the period are some- 
times referred to as James I., Charles II., etc., according 
to whose reign they were designed under. 

Characteristics of the styles: Panelling, moulding, 
turned and spiral legs, flat or cut-in carving and a straight 
line style of construction. 




Early Type of Jacobean Sideboard, South 
Kensington Museum, London. 






73 



74 HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 




Jacobean, an early example of the Court Cupboard, dated 1606. 




An Example of Late Jacobean Work. 



HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 75 




Old Jacobean Sideboard. 




Jacobean Table, about 1660. 



76 HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 





Jacobean Stool, 1640. 



Jacobean, late 17th Century. 
South Kensington Museum. 








Jacobean Wood Seat Chair, 
aboAit 1055. 



Jacobean Upholstered Cnair, 
about 1614. 



HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 77 




Jacobean Cabinet, about 1630. 




Old Jacobean Carved Chest. 



78 HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 





Jacobean Upholstered Chairs of the Cromwellian Period. 




Jacobean Chair with Inlaid 
Back. 



Jacobean Carved Chair, 
Dated 1668. 



WILLIAM AND MARY 

With the ascension of Mary and her Dutch husband, 
William of Orange, to the English throne, Dutch influences 
prevailed. Many of the court attaches were Dutch and brought 
much of their furniture with them. English workmen copied 
these patterns with such changes as their taste suggested and a 
new style was gradually developed which became known as 
William and Mary. 

General simplicity of ornament prevailed, veneering came 
into style and Dutch inlaying was popular. 

The William and Mary type was really the beginning of 
Queen Anne style but had some distinct features which entitled 
it to a place of its own. Oak and walnut were the principal 
woods used. 

Characteristic features of the style are: Turned legs, 
curved under-framing and arched tops to cabinets and frames. 




William and Mary Dressing Table, showing Typical 
Turned Legs and Curved Underframing. 




8o HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 





William and Mary Carved 
Back Chair. 



William and Mary Upholstered 
Chair. 





William amd Mary Chair, 
. about 1090. 



William and Mary C*n 
Back Chair. 



HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 81 




\Villiam. and Mary Arched Tap Writing 
Cabinet, about 1690. 




QUEEN ANNE 

In the Queen Anne style we have a type that is a complete 
change from the early English Renaissance. Furniture under 
the reign of William and Mary formed a connecting link 
between the Jacobean and Queen Anne styles, but under Dutch 
influences, the old rectangular forms gave way to curved lines 
and more graceful proportions. Chairs which had previously 
been stiff and uncomfortable, were now shaped to fit the 
anatomy of the human form. Upholstering came into general 
use and all kinds of "overstuffed" chairs and settees were grace- 
ful and comfortable. The slip seat came into style about this 
time. 

The curved splat-backed chair is another type of the period. 
The cabriole leg was introduced and is a distinct feature of the 
style. It was first made plain, but later carving was added, 
generally in the form of a shell-like ornament at the knee. 
The hoof, ball and claw-foot were also used. The cabriole leg 
was first introduced by the Dutch traders from China where 
it had been used for hundreds of years and probably originated 
from animal forms. The ball and claw-foot also came from 
China, where it represented the foot of the dragon holding the 
mystic jewel. The cabriole leg was adapted to various uses. 
It was low and sturdy under heavy cabinets and tall and 
slender for tables and chairs. 

Veneering was extensively used and Dutch marquetrie 
was popular. Walnut was the principal wood but some mahog- 
any was used during the latter days. Queen Anne style pre- 
dominated from the reign of William and Mary until the end 
of the reign of George II. 

Characteristic features of the style: The cabriole leg, 
under-framing, splat-back chairs with curved seat frames, 
arch top cabinets, etc. 






84 HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 




Queen Anne Marquetrie Settee with Slip Seat and Cabriole Legs, 
with Ball Claw-foot and Shell Carving at Knee, about 1710. 




Queen Anne Carved Chair, in South 
Kensington Museum. 



Queea Anne Marquetrie Chair, with 
Curved Underfrarrn'i" 



HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 85 




Queen Anne Upholstered Settee, with Plain Cabriole Leg and 
Hoof Foot. 




Queen Anne Carved Chair, with 
Turned Underframing. 



Queen Anne Upholstered Chair, 
about 1710. 



HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 




Queen Anne Upholstered Chair, with 
Loose Cushion, 1705. 



Removable Toilet, used on 
Table Below. 





Queen Anne Toilet Table, Plain Cabriole 
Leg and Hoof Foot 



Queen Anne Hoof Foot 
Chair. 



HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 87 




Queen Anne Bed at Hampton Court Palace. 



HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 




Queen Anne Highboy 

or Chest of Drawers. 

Inlaid Band Around 

Drawers. 



Queen Anne 

Carved Table, 

about 1710. 





THE GEORGIAN PERIOD 

The Georgian period is known as the Golden Age of 
English furniture. Chippendale, Heppelwhite, Adam Brothers 
and Sheraton were the dominating figures of the period and 
each left a style to bear their name. They did not design all 
the furniture named after them, as many other designers 
worked in the same styles. 

Other 18th century designers who published books of 
designs are : 

Thomas Johnson 1758-1761 

Ince & Mayhew 1762 

J. Crunden f 1765-1796 

Robert Manwaring 1765-1766 

Thomas Shearer 1793 

Thomas Hope 1807 



CHIPPENDALE 

Thomas Chippendale was the first designer to so impress 
his personality on his work that the particular style that he 
helped develop has borne his name ever since. He was a 
carver by trade, but later started in business in St. Martins 
Lane, London. His book, the "Gentlemen's and Cabinet- 
makers' Directory," was published in 1754 and a later edition 
in 1762. 

Chippendale chairs are probably better known than any 
of his other work. They are noted for their beautiful propor- 
tions and delicate carvings. His designs were largely a com- 
bination of Gothic, rococo and Chinese detail, all of which he 
combined with rare skill. His Chinese frets were exceptionally 
fine. One class of his designs was very similar to the Louis 
XV. style, so popular in France at that time. The cabriole leg, 
ball and claw-foot, were both used by him as also were a 
variety of straight, square legs, plain or with the Chinese fret 
work laid on or cut through. The slip seat was a character- 
istic feature of his chairs. 

Chippendale's book shows designs for a great variety of 
all kinds of furniture. Mahogany was the principal wood used. 
Carving was the method of ornamentation. Chippendale never 
used inlay and very little turning. 

Characteristic features of the style are : Latticed and 
ribbon-backed chairs, bands of fret work and rococo carvings. 




Chippendale Settee at South Kensington Museum. 
91 



92 HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 




Chippendale Arm' Chair, Middle of 18th 
Century. South Kensington Museum. 



Ribbon Back Chair, from Chippen- 
dale's Book. 







Chippendale, about 1740. 



Fine Carved Chippendale Chair, 
abon' 1740. 



HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 93 



Chinese Chair, from Chippendale's Book. 



Gothic Chair, Chippendale's Book. 



Chippendale Round-about Chair. 




Chinese Chair, from Chippendale's Book. 
7 



Gothic Chair, from Chippendale's Book. 



94 HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 





\ 










afiiiin i ,\ 




Bookcase, from Chippendale's Book. 




Chippendale Desk, made about 1760. Chippendale Chair. South Kensington 

Muceum. 



HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 95 



Tables from Chippendale's Book of 
Designs. 




Chippendale Toilet Table, made 
about 1730. 



96 HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 




Chippendale State Bed, from an 18th 
Century Design. 






HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 97 





Secretary, from Chippendale's Book. 



STATE WWML s< 




98 HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 




Chinese Chippendale Chair from 
Chippendale's book. 



HEPPELWHITE 

Heppelwhite was the style to follow Chippendale. George 
Heppel white died in 1786 and the furniture business he had 
established was carried on by his widow, Alice, under the name 
of A. Heppelwhite & Co. 

The first edition of his book, "The Cabinet-maker and 
Upholsterer's Guide," did not appear until two years after his 
death. 

Heppelwhite's designs were of a severe straight line style 
based on classic principles. His shield-backed chairs are his 
best known type. The square, tapering leg with a spade foot, 
is most used, although turning is sometimes employed but 
never the cabriole leg so popular with Chippendale. A dis- 
tinguishing feature of Heppelwhite chair backs was the use of 
the Prince of Wales plume. Sheraton never used this in his 
chair designs and it is a feature that often settles the author- 
ship of certain patterns that otherwise are very similar. Another 
distinguishing feature is that Heppelwhite's shield back chairs 
usually have a plain, curved top rail, while Sheraton's are 
broken or with a small rectangular panel in the center. 

Upholstering and cane were both used on chairs and 
settees. Carvings were very delicate and refined. Veneering, 
marqueterie and painting were all used. Mahogany was the 
popular wood. 

Characteristic features of the style are : Honeysuckle, 
wheat ear and water leaf ornament; shield back chairs and 
straight legs. 




Upholstered Settee, from Heppelwhite's Book. 

99 



HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 





Heppelwhite Shield Back Chair, showing Heppelwhite Shield Back Chair, from 

Prince of Wales Plume, South his book. 

Kensington Museum. 




Chair from Heppelwhite's Book, showing Upholstered Wing Chair, from Heppel- 
Prince of Wales Plume. white's Boole. 



HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE, rot 




Sideboard from Heppelwhite's Book, showing Concave Corners, Square 
Leg and Spade Foot. 




Bed from Heppelwhite's Book. 



Heppelwhite Chest of Drawers with 
LIBRARY Removable Toilet. 




(Hi 



102 HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 




Hcppelwhite Bed, from hia book. 



THE ADAM STYLE 

R. and J. Adams were architects, and the furniture 
designed for their houses, while very similar to Heppelwhite 
and Sheraton, was more a classic style based on a study of 
antique detail found in the buried cities of Pompeii and Her- 
culaneum. 

They introduced a kind of composition ornament that was 
applied to the wood. Most of their decorations were in 
low relief, either composition or carved. They also used inlay, 
painting and guilding. Legs of chairs, tables, etc., were 
usually square, fluted and tapering. Chimney pieces show some 
of their finest work. Some of the Adams designs were taken 
to America during the Colonial days and form the basis of 
what is now known as Adams' Colonial. 

Characteristic details of the style are : Ram's-heads, urns, 
rosettes, festoons, classical moulding and delicate fluting. 




Elaborate Sideboard with Knife Vases on Pedestals. A typical 

example of the Adam Style. 




103 



104 HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 



WfffffnffffM 




JZ21 



Adam Sideboard and Cellarette. 




Adam Pedestals and Knife Vases. 



Knife Vase, showing 
method of opening. 




Adam Tea Caddie. 



HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 105 




Adam Settee. 




Adam Chair. 



Adam Mantel. 



io6 HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE 




Adam Mantel. 




SHERATON 

Thomas Sheraton has been called the master of cabinet 
making- and inlay. He used very little carving- and what he 
did was very dainty and strictly conventional. Like the Heppel- 
white, Adam and Louis XVI. styles, Sheraton followed 
straight classic lines. His best work was severe and simple 
and on some of his furniture he did not use a single moulding 
but depended entirely upon inlay for ornamentation. He was 
the first designer to use satinwood to any great extent and 
was famous for his veneered work and mechanical contrivances. 

The majority of his chair backs were rectangular in form 
with slightly curved and broken top rails. He used a variety 
of straight legs, square, turned, tapered and fluted, but never 
the cabriole leg. He favored all-over stuffed seats except where 
cane was used, and seldom used under-framing. His book, 
"The Cabinet-maker and Upholsterer's Drawing Book," was 
published in 1791, and shows a great variety of all kinds of 
furniture. The sideboards and side-tables in his book always show 
the convex corners, while Heppelwhite's show the concave. He 
was also the first to design a kidney-shaped table. He was not 
a manufacturer, as was Chippendale and Heppelwhite, but 
sold his designs to whom he could. He was the last of the 
18th century designers to leave a style bearing his name, and 
is considered by many to have been the greatest of them all. 
Mahogany was the principal wood used. 

Characteristics of the style are : Rectangular chair back, 
straight fluted legs, square or turned; satinwood inlay and 
classic detail. 




Kidney-shaped Writing Table, from Sheraton's 
Book of Designs. 

107 



io8 HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 




Sideboard, from Sheraton's Book, showing Convex Corners, Brass 
Candlestick and Railing. 




Sheraton Writing Desk, made in 



i Writing Desk, 
England, 1780. 



Sheraton Cane Seat Chair. 



HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 109 





Sheraton Shield-back .Chair. Note broken 

top rail, which tispnguishes it from 

Heppelwnite's chairs. 



Secretary, from Sheraton's Book. 




Sheraton Chair, in South Kensington 
Museum. 



no HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 




Bookcase and Writing Desk, from Sheraton's Book. 




Couch, from Sheraton's Book. 



HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE, in 




Bed, from Sheraton's Book. 



HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 







Ann Chairs and Chair Backs, from Sheraton's Book. 



VICTORIAN ERA 

During the early years of the 19th century, an unsuccess- 
ful attempt was made to copy the Empire style, but after the 
brilliant work of the 18th century, English furniture design- 
ing sank to a low ebb. All sorts of cheap, flimsy orna- 
ments were used and it was not until the middle of thejp^ury 
that styles began to improve. 

In 1868, Mr. Charles Eastlake, an architect, published 
"Hints on Household Taste," which was responsible for what 
is known as the Eastlake style. 

William Morris was a designer and decorator of excep- 
tional ability and by his lectures and work (1860-1896) did 
much to improve public taste. His work was along simple 
lines similar to the Arts and Crafts style in England today 
and the Mission in the United States. 






Table and Chairs from Eastlake's Book, "Hints on 
Household Taste," 1868. 

"3 



THE RENAISSANCE STYLE IN OTHER 
EUROPEAN COUNTRIES 

By referring to the chronological table, it will be seen 
that the Renaissance style spread to all of the European coun- 
tries, but it did not develop into a series of distinct period styles 
as in France and England. The furniture designed in these 
various countries usually followed, more or less, the changes 
in fashion that were designated as period styles in France 
and England, but their work is known by the name of the 
country, as German Renaissance, Spanish Renaissance, etc., 
and not by period names, as Louis Seize, Empire, Chippendale 
and other French and English styles. 






GERMAN 

In Germany the early Renaissance designers closely fol- 
lowed the work of Italy and France and later they did consid- 
erable work in the rococo style. They were also influenced by 
the classic revival that did so much for the furniture of France 
and England during the latter part of the 18th century. 



German Renaissance Toilet 
Stands and Chairs. 




In Museum, Dresden. 



17th Century. 



n6 HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 




German Rococo Chair. 



FLEMISH 

The early Flemish style in Belgium closely followed the 
Italian and French work; but their later designs were made 
much plainer and they developed a type that had strong char- 
acteristics of its own. It was a style very suitable for oak, the 
principal wood used. The Flemish style, which gets its name 
from that part of Belgium called Flanders, was very similar 
to the Elizabethan and Jacobean in England, and no doubt the 
latter named styles were considerably influenced by it. 




Carved Flemish Cabinet 



117 



n8 HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 





Flemish Carved Chair Back. 



Flemish Chair, about 1678. 




Flemish Oak Chest, 17th Century. 



Corner of Flemish Bed, from the 
Plantin Museum, Antwerp. 



HOLLAND 

The Dutch Renaissance of Holland and the Netherlands 
was, of course, greatly influenced by the Flemish and French 
work, but the tendency of their designers was towards plainer 
surfaces and less ornament. 

The early Dutch were great traders with the east and 
they brought back many rare colored woods which were used 
on their furniture in the form of veneers and inlays develop- 
ing into what is known as Dutch marquetrie. 




Dutch Renaissance Chair, from a book 
published in 1642. 




Cabinet Inlaid with Dutch Marqueterie. 

119 



Dutch Splat Back Chair. 



SPAIN 

The furniture and ornament of Spain and Portugal was 
strongly influenced by the Moorish style owing to their close 
proximity to Morocco. They were never great furniture 
builders, and old Spanish furniture is very scarce. During 
their conquest of Belgium and the Netherlands, some of their 
characteristics found their way into those countries and what 
is known as the Spanish foot, is often seen on Flemish and 
Dutch furniture. 




Spanish Chest. 



Spanish Chair. 



121 



HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 




Spanish Renaissance Chair, showing 
Spanish Foot. 



L'ART NOUVEAU 

This style was brought prominently before the public at 
the Paris Exposition in 1900. The style is based on natural- 
istic principles. Motifs are the root of the tree, trunk, branches, 
leaves and vines twisted into all manner of shapes. It had its 
greatest run in Austria and France, but has not proved very 
satisfactory for furniture and is probably better adapted to 
metal work or wall and cloth designs. 




Cabinet Shown at Paris Exposition, 1900. 
123 



124 HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 




Art Nouveau Upholstered Arm Chair, 
shown at the Paris Exposition, 1900. 



Art Nouveau Chair, with Inlaid 
Back and Upholstered Seat, 
shown at Paris Exposition. 




FURNITURE IN THE UNITED STATES 

During the early days of this country, some excellent 
furniture was produced owing principally to the study of 18th 
century English and French models. Then came a period of 
reaction. Furniture was loaded with cheap ornament and 
meaningless carving. The main idea seemed to be "how much" 
and not "how good." This was partly due to the introduction 
of labor-saving machinery, but more to untrained men going 
into the furniture business, many of them being entirely 
ignorant of the first principles of correct design. The rapid 
growth of the country caused such a demand for furniture 
that anything sold for a time, but a gradual improvement set 
in; factories began to employ experienced designers and the 
past twenty-five years has shown great advancement in the 
manufacture of furniture in this country. It is now produced 
in all the old period styles of a quality equal to any in the 
world and two new styles have been added to the list Colonial 
and Mission. 



125 



126 HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 




Typical Old New England Settle, with Folding Candlestick Holder. 



COLONIAL FURNITURE 

The name of this style is derived from the Colonial days 
of the United States and was the outgrowth of the furniture 
brought over from the mother country of the various colonies. 

The New England and Virginia settlements were made 
by the English, and their furniture was mostly of the Georgian 
period, Chippendale, Sheraton, Adam, etc. New Orleans was 
settled by the French and here we find furniture of the Louis 
and Empire periods. To New York came the Dutch with 
their Dutch and Flemish furniture, so we have three distinct 
types of Colonial furniture Dutch, English and French. The 
Colonial style was developed from these by making them 
plainer, leaving off ornament and simplifying them in every 
way possible, but retaining the original outlines and propor- 
tions. It must be borne in mind that Colonial furniture and 
Colonial styles are two separate things. Many of the pieces 
which have come down to us from the Colonial days are pure 
Chippendale, Sheraton or other styles and are recognized as 
such nowadays, so we find the Colonial style of today is the 
result of the gradual development of ideas derived from this 
old furniture just as in the past, new styles were the outgrowth 
of the older ones. 

'Strictly speaking, the name Colonial would only apply to 
furniture in this country before the Declaration of Independ- 
ence. If this classification was observed, it would disqualify 
half of the furniture now owned by antiquarian and historical 
societies. So it has become customary to classify as Colonial, 
furniture made for some years after 1776. This old furniture 
has been gradually gathered in museums and private collec- 
tions, and there are a number of books devoted entirely to 
Colonial furniture, so it is the purpose of this book to only 
show a few of the more interesting examples.^ 



127 



128 HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 





Windsor Chair, from Washington's 

Presidential Mansion, 

Philadelphia. 



18th Century Windsor Chair. 





Early 18th Century Splint Bottom Chair, 
belonged to William Penn. 



Rust. Bottom Chair 
in Boston. 



HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 129 




Louis XVI. Style. Sheraton Style. 

Chairs owned by George Washington. 




Empire Chair, made in Paris, Brought 

to the United States, and owned 

by President Monroe. 



Empire Chair from the library of Nap*oleon 

I. Afterwards owned in New 

Orleans, La. 



130 HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 





Cane Chair with Spanish Foot. Owned 

by Connecticut Historical Society, 

Hartford, Conn. 



Cane Chair, 17th Century English 
Style. Owned by the Connec- 
ticut Historical Society, 
Hartford, Conn. 





Dutch Chairs. 
Owned by the American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Mass. 



HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 131 




Sofa of the Early 19th Century Type, Owned by Worcester Society of 
Antiquity, Worcester, Mass. 




Table in Salem, Mass., 
acobean stylo, known as 
'gate" or "thousand leg" 
table. The legs swing back 
allowing the leaves to drop 
down at sides. 




Sofa in the Sheraton Style. Owned by the American 
Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Mass. 



132 HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 





Mahogany Chest of Drawers, in 
Hartford, Conn. 



Secretary given to Stephen Girard by 
Joseph Bonaparte. 




Thomas Jefferson's Desk. 



HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 133 



Console Table in 
the Empire Style. 



Dressing Table, owned by 
the Concord Antiquarian 
Society, Concord, Mass. 




Bombe-shaped Chest of 
Drawers, in Salem, Mass. 



134 HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 





Tables and Sideboard, now owned in Baltimore. 



HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 135 




George Washington's Desk, owned by Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania. 



COLONIAL STYLE OF TODAY 

Probably the most popular type of modern Colonial 
today, is the one derived from the Empire style. The brass 
and ormolu mounts of the Empire have been discarded and the 
classical features retained and from this has come a distinct 
American period style. 

Mahogany, with fine figured veneer, is the wood most 
used, but other kinds are employed, the wood having nothing 
to do with the style. 

Characteristics: The classical column, carved or plain; 
the S-shaped scroll, lion's paw foot, and scroll foot. 




China Cabinet, Colonial Style, Scroll Support and 
Lion's-paw Feet. 



137 




Modern Colonial Sideboard with Crotch Mahogany Veneer Scroll 
Supports and Feet. 




Crotch Mahogany Colonial Sideboard with Carved Columns and 
Lion's-paw Feet. 



HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 139 




Modern Colonial Sideboard with Plain Columns and Ball Claw Feet. 




Modern Colonial Sideboard with Scroll Supports and Feet 



MO HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 






Modern Colonial Library Tables. 



HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 141 




Plain Four-post Bed, Colonial Style. 




Scroll Bed, Colonial Style. , 




Colonial Desk with Scroll Legs and Feet 



142 HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 




Four-post Bed, Pineapple Carvings, Colonial Style. 




Colonial Style Arm Chair. 



MISSION 

During the past few years a style has developed in the 
United States called Mission, suggested by work found in the 
old Spanish Missions in California and the southwest. It runs 
almost entirely to straight lines. At first it was extremely 
heavy and clumsy, but recently has been lightejafl and greatly 
improved upon. It is a simple straightforward style easily 
recognized and is very popular at the present time. 

Oak is the principal wood used, and fuming or dark stains 
the finish most suitable. Similar work is being produced in 
England, Austria and Germany under the names of New Art, 
Craftsman and Arts and Crafts. 




Library Table. 



LIBRARY 

TAT* TBACHEfV OLUKOft 
ANT* BARBARA. CALirORNIA 



143 



716 



144 HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 




Mission Morris Chair. 




Mission Davenport with Loose Cushions. 



HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 145 




Mission Settee with Loose Cushions. 





Mission Upholstered Chair. 



Mission Rocker with Loose Cushions. 



146 HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 





Mission Library Tables. 



HOW TO KNOW PERIOD STYLES IN FURNITURE. 147 




Mission Desk. 




Mission Sideboard. 



THE LIBRARY 
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 

Santa Barbara 



THIS BOOK IS DUE ON THE LAST DATE 
STAMPED BELOW. 




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50w-5,'64 (E5474s8 ) 9482 





000 990 907 8 




11 "205 00143 4933 






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